To Have and Have Not

To Have and Have Not (1937)

Novel: To Have and Have Not (also Cosmopolitan Short Story "One Trip Across")
Published/Performed: 1937 (novel); 1934 (magazine)

Author: Ernest Hemingway
Born: Jul 21, 1899 Oak Park, IL
Passed: Jul 2, 1961 Ketchum, Idaho

Film: To Have and Have Not
Released: 1944

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About the Novel To Have and Have Not:

To Have and Have Not is a 1937 novel by Ernest Hemingway about Harry Morgan, a fishing boat captain who lives with a prostitute and runs contraband between Cuba and Florida. The novel depicts Harry as an essentially good man who is forced into blackmarket activity by economic forces beyond his control. Initially, his fishing charter customer Mr. Johnson tricks Harry by slipping away without paying any of the money he owes him. Johnson then flees back to the mainland by airplane before Harry realizes what has happened. Harry then makes a critical decision to smuggle Chinese immigrants into Florida in order to feed his family. He kills the person in charge of getting the immigrants to Florida because the man "Obviously was far too easily persuaded to pay him more for the transport". Morgan himself is killed in the end by revolutionaries. The Great Depression features prominently in the novel, forcing depravity and hunger on the poor residents of Key West who are referred to as "Conchs."

To Have and Have Not began as a short story?published as "One Trip Across" in Cosmopolitan in 1934? introducing the character Harry Morgan. A second story was written and published in Esquire in 1936, at which point, Hemingway decided to write a novel about Harry Morgan. Unfortunately the writing of the novel coincided with the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.

To Have and Have Not is Hemingway's only novel set in the United States. Written sporadically between 1935 and 1937, and revised as he travelled back and forth from the Spanish Civil War, To Have and Have Not is a novel about Key West and Cuba. The novel also addresses social commentary of the 1930s, and received mixed critical reception.

o Have and Have Not was published by Scribner's on 15 October 1937 to a first edition print-run of approximately 10,000 copies.[4] Cosmopolitan Magazine published a section of the novel as "One Trip Across" in 1934; and Esquire Magazine published a section as "The Tradesman's Return" in 1936.

To Have or Have Not was adapted to film in 1944, starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall.[5] The film To Have and Have Not, directed by Howard Hawks, changed the story's setting from Key West to Martinique under the Vichy regime, and made significant alterations to the plot, including getting rid of Hemingway's Marxist overtones, and turning the story into a romantic thriller centering on the sparks going on between Harry Morgan and Marie Browning.

The second film version, titled The Breaking Point (1950), was directed by Michael Curtiz and stars John Garfield and Patricia Neal with Juano Hernandez as Morgan's partner. The movie shifted the action to southern California and made Garfield a former PT Boat captain but is otherwise the most faithful to the original book.

The third film version, titled The Gun Runners (1958), was directed by Don Siegel and stars Audie Murphy in the Bogart/Garfield role and Everett Sloane in Walter Brennan's part as the alcoholic sidekick, although Sloane's interpretation was less overtly comedic than Brennan's. The movie features a bravura performance by Eddie Albert as a charismatic villain.

Pauline Kael and Bosley Crowther have claimed that the ending was used for John Huston's film Key Largo (1948); Kael also said that "One Trip Across" was made into The Gun Runners (1958).[

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Featured Cast (Names and Roles) of the Film To Have and Have Not: